Sunday, April 30, 2006

Great loss of souls due to ignorance

As a catechist in my parish, I'm astonished at how ignorant Catholics are with regard to Catholic Doctrine. It appears that many parishes are simply not giving enough time and/or effort to catechesis--the teaching of Christian Doctrine. Some have suggested that catechesis has been de-emphasized by the Church since the Vatican II Council. I wouldn't know, as I wasn't alive before Vatican II. Nonetheless, it certainly seems to me that catechesis is lacking.

For example, in one of my adult religious education classes, one of the Catholic class members confidently remarked that praying to saints was wrong, and contrary to Sacred Scripture. I then proceeded to explain that according to Scripture, Christians are certainly justified and in fact exhorted to pray for one another, to include asking other Christians to pray for us. There's nothing in Scripture that prohibits this. Moreover, the Christian body includes angels and faithful departed alive in heaven, and is not merely limited to Christians alive on earth. The Psalmist directly invokes the angels and heavenly hosts to pray with him. Likewise, Christ conversed with Moses and Elijah, and St. John the Apostle spoke to angels and saints in heaven. It appears from the evidence that this is a very Scriptural practice. After I spoke, he replied with much less confidence, "I haven't read the Book of Revelation yet." I was astonished that he could be so confident that the holy practice of the Church for the past 2000 years was "unscriptural" yet he had not bothered even to finish reading the Bible. I was equally astonished that this appearant cradle Catholic lacked basic catechetical formation on the matter.

Nonetheless, it appears that even under the papacy of St. Pius X, poor catechesis was a big problem. St. Pius X's encyclical on Teaching Christian Doctrine (Acerbo Nimis, 1905) does a wonderful job of describing how very important teaching Christian Doctrine is for those who pastor souls. It is so important that, if catechesis is negelicted or carried out carelessly or superficially, it will invariably contribute to the loss of souls. I consider this encyclical a "must read" for everyone who has the responsibility to teach Catholic Doctrine, most especially pastors and catechists.

Here are some excerpts...

"The enemy has, indeed, long been prowling about the fold and attacking it with such subtle cunning that now, more than ever before, the prediction of the Apostle to the elders of the Church of Ephesus seems to be verified: 'I know that...fierce wolves will get in among you, and will not spare the flock.' [Acts 20:29].... We are forced to agree with those who hold that the chief cause of the present indifference and, as it were, infirmity of soul, and the serious evils that result from it, is to be found above all in ignorance of things divine. This is fully in accord with what God Himself declared through the Prophet Osee: 'And there is no knowledge of God in the land. Cursing and lying and killing and theft and adultery have overflowed: and blood hath touched blood. Thereafter shall the land mourn, and everyone that dwelleth in it shall languish.'[ Osee 4:1-3]" (par. 1).

"...there are large numbers of Christians in our own time who are entirely ignorant of those truths necessary for salvation. And when we mention Christians, We refer not only to the masses or to those in the lower walks of life - for these find some excuse for their ignorance in the fact that the demands of their harsh employers hardly leave them time to take care of themselves or of their dear ones - but We refer to those especially who do not lack culture or talents and, indeed, are possessed of abundant knowledge regarding things of the world but live rashly and imprudently with regard to religion. It is hard to find words to describe how profound is the darkness in which they are engulfed and, what is most deplorable of all, how tranquilly they repose there." (par. 2)

"The Apostle Paul...also places the foundation of holiness and sound morals upon a knowledge of divine things - which holds in check evil desires: 'See to it therefore, brethren, that you walk with care: not as unwise but as wise. . . Therefore, do not become foolish, but understand what the will of the Lord is.'[ Eph. 5:15-16].... [Man's] erring will, blinded by its own evil desires, has need therefore of a guide to lead it back to the paths of justice whence it has so unfortunately strayed. The intellect itself is this guide, which need not be sought elsewhere, but is provided by nature itself. It is a guide, though, that, if it lack its companion light, the knowledge of divine things, will be only an instance of the blind leading the blind so that both will fall into the pit." (par. 3)

" Christian teaching reveals God and His infinite perfection with far greater clarity than is possible by the human faculties alone. Nor is that all. This same Christian teaching also commands us to honor God by faith, which is of the mind, by hope, which is of the will, by love, which is of the heart; and thus the whole man is subjected to the supreme Maker and Ruler of all things." (par. 4)

" We by no means wish to conclude that a perverse will and unbridled conduct may not be joined with a knowledge of religion. Would to God that facts did not too abundantly prove the contrary! But We do maintain that the will cannot be upright nor the conduct good when the mind is shrouded in the darkness of crass ignorance. A man who walks with open eyes may, indeed, turn aside from the right path, but a blind man is in much more imminent danger of wandering away. Furthermore, there is always some hope for a reform of perverse conduct so long as the light of faith is not entirely extinguished; but if lack of faith is added to depraved morality because of ignorance, the evil hardly admits of remedy, and the road to ruin lies open." (par. 5)

"How many and how grave are the consequences of ignorance in matters of religion! And on the other hand, how necessary and how beneficial is religious instruction! It is indeed vain to expect a fulfillment of the duties of a Christian by one who does not even know them." (par. 6)

"We must now consider upon whom rests the obligation to dissipate this most pernicious ignorance and to impart in its stead the knowledge that is wholly indispensable. There can be no doubt, Venerable Brethren, that this most important duty rests upon all who are pastors of souls. On them, by command of Christ, rest the obligations of knowing and of feeding the flocks committed to their care; and to feed implies, first of all, to teach. "I will give you pastors according to my own heart," God promised through Jeremias, "and they shall feed you with knowledge and doctrine." [Jer. 3: 15] Hence the Apostle Paul said: "Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel,"[I Cor. 1:17] thereby indicating that the first duty of all those who are entrusted in any way with the government of the Church is to instruct the faithful in the things of God." (par. 7)

"If, assuredly, the alms with which we relieve the needs of the poor are highly praised by the Lord, how much more precious in His eyes, then, will be the zeal and labor expended in teaching and admonishing, by which we provide not for the passing needs of the body but for the eternal profit of the soul! Nothing, surely, is more desirable, nothing more acceptable to Jesus Christ, the Savior of souls, Who testifies of Himself through Isaias: "To bring good news to the poor he has sent me." [Luke 4:18] (par. 8)

"For this reason the Council of Trent, treating of the duties of pastors of souls, decreed that their first and most important work is the instruction of the faithful.[ Sess. V, cap. 2, De Reform.; Sess. XXII, cap. 8; Sess. XXIV, cap. 4 & 7, De Reform.]" (par. 11)

"The task of the catechist is to take up one or other of the truths of faith or of Christian morality and then explain it in all its parts; and since amendment of life is the chief aim of his instruction, the catechist must needs make a comparison between what God commands us to do and what is our actual conduct. After this, he will use examples appropriately taken from the Holy Scriptures, Church history, and the lives of the saints - thus moving his hearers and clearly pointing out to them how they are to regulate their own conduct. He should, in conclusion, earnestly exhort all present to dread and avoid vice and to practice virtue." (par. 13)

"We do not disapprove of those pulpit orators who, out of genuine zeal for the glory of God, devote themselves to defense of the faith and to its spread, or who eulogize the saints of God. But their labor presupposes labor of another kind, that of the catechist. And so if this be lacking, then the foundation is wanting; and they labor in vain who build the house.... Too often it happens that ornate sermons which receive the applause of crowded congregations [?] serve but to tickle the ears and fail utterly to touch the hearts of the hearers. Catechetical instruction, on the other hand, plain and simple though it be, is the word of which God Himself speaks... The teaching of the Catechism...when rightly done, never fails to profit those who listen to it." (par. 14)

"...if we cannot expect to reap a harvest when no seed has been planted, how can we hope to have a people with sound morals if Christian doctrine has not been imparted to them in due time? It follows, too, that if faith languishes in our days, if among large numbers it has almost vanished, the reason is that the duty of catechetical teaching is either fulfilled very superficially or altogether neglected.... Man has the faculty of understanding at his birth, but he also has need of his mother's word to awaken it, as it were, and to make it active. So too, the Christian, born again of water and the Holy Spirit, has faith within him, but he requires the word of the teaching Church to nourish and develop it and to make it bear fruit." (par. 16)

"... where universities, colleges and secondary schools are located, let classes in religion be organized to instruct in the truths of faith and in the practice of Christian life the youths who attend the public schools from which all religious teaching is banned." (par. 23)

"Since it is a fact that in these days adults need instruction no less than the young, all pastors and those having the care of souls shall explain the Catechism to the people in a plain and simple style adapted to the intelligence of their hearers. This shall be carried out on all holy days of obligation, at such time as is most convenient for the people, but not during the same hour when the children are instructed, and this instruction must be in addition to the usual homily on the Gospel which is delivered at the parochial Mass on Sundays and holy days.... the matter is to be divided in such a way that in the space of four or five years, treatment will be given to the Apostles' Creed, the Sacraments, the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer and the Precepts of the Church." (par. 24)

"We decree and command this by virtue of Our Apostolic Authority. It now rests with you to put it into prompt and complete execution in your respective dioceses, and by the power of your authority to see to it that these prescriptions of Ours be not neglected or, what amounts to the same thing, that they be not carried out carelessly or superficially." (par. 24)

"...of [the Apostles] Pope Saint Gregory wrote: "They took supreme care to preach to the uninstructed simple truths easy to understand, not things deep and difficult."[ Morals, I, 17, cap. 26]. In matters of religion, the majority of men in our times must be considered uninstructed." (par. 25)

" No matter what natural facility a person may have in ideas and language, let him always remember that he will never be able to teach Christian doctrine to children or to adults without first giving himself to very careful study and preparation. They are mistaken who think that because of inexperience and lack of training of the people the work of catechizing can be performed in a slipshod fashion. On the contrary, the less educated the hearers, the more zeal and diligence must be used to adapt the sublime truths to their untrained minds; these truths, indeed, far surpass the natural understanding of the people, yet must be known by all - the uneducated and the cultured - in order that they may arrive at eternal happiness." (par. 26)

"We pray and entreat you to reflect on the great loss of souls due solely to ignorance of divine things. You have doubtless accomplished many useful and most praiseworthy works in your respective dioceses for the good of the flock entrusted to your care, but before all else, and with all possible zeal and diligence and care, see to it and urge on others that the knowledge of Christian doctrine pervades and imbues fully and deeply the minds of all." (par. 27)


God bless,


Saturday, April 29, 2006

Charity demands fraternal correction

"Lord, in my zeal for the love of truth,
let me not forget the truth about love"
St. Thomas Aquinas

It is often difficult to share the truth when you believe it will be met with sorrow, anger, resentment, or argument. We are called to 1) be nice to others, and 2) uphold the truth. Sometimes telling the truth isn't seen as "being nice," and so I think some folks just stay quiet so as not to offend.

For example, I have heard many people who believe deliberately killing an unborn child is evil, however many of these same people also want to allow the "right to choose." Geeeez! They think establishing laws against the evil of abortion is incongruent with "being nice." Well, the most frequent surgical procedure in America is abortion. They're choosing, alright. But they're choosing evil. :( Perhaps it's because we've forgotten that "admonishing the sinner" is among the spiritual works of mercy.

Is "be nice to others" congruent with "uphold the truth?" In other words, does real love of neighbor include telling the truth or admonishing the sinner, even if you know that by doing so, you will anger or offend them?

St. Paul taught, "Them that sin reprove before all that the rest also may have fear." (1 Tim 5:20). I'm a sinner who deserves and desires admonishment. I wish I could remember the name of that priest at Gonzaga University who gently admonished me with a look and a few words when I told him I was attending worship services with the Universalist Unitarians. He said, "you may find that believing in everything is the same as believing in nothing." He was right. May God bless that holy priest.

Admonishing the sinner, as taught by St. Paul to St. Timothy is certainly compatible with "love of neighbor." The Catechism of the Catholic Church likewise teaches, "Charity demands...fraternal correction." (CCC 1829).

Moreover, from the Rule of St. Augustine,
"...admonish him that the evil thus begun may not grow worse but may be corrected by your charity.... Nor are you to consider that you are acting in an uncharitable manner when you thus point out your neighbors' faults. Or the contrary, you cannot be free from blame if by your silence you allow your brethren to perish, when by pointing out their faults you might have corrected them. For if your brother had some bodily wound which he wished to hide through fear of the surgeon s knife, would it not be cruel to keep silence and merciful to reveal the wound? How more, then, are we bound to reveal that which will cause a worse corruption in the heart! ... Nor is such treatment cruel, but merciful, for many must not be suffered to perish by the pestilent example of one. ...Yet remember to let love of the sinner be ever united to hatred of his sin." (The rule of St. Augustine)
Pope Benedict XVI likewise asserted,
Fraternal correction is a work of mercy. None of us sees himself or his shortcomings clearly. It is therefore an act of love to complement one another, to help one another see each other better, and correct each other.

I think that one of the very functions of collegiality is to help one another, also in the sense of the previous imperative, to know the shortcomings that we ourselves do not want to see - "ab occultis meis munda me" [from my secret ones cleanse me - Psalm 18:13 Douay-Rheims] , the Psalm says - to help one another to open ourselves and to see these things.

Of course, this great work of mercy, helping one another so that each of us can truly rediscover his own integrity and functionality as an instrument of God, demands great humility and love.

Only if it comes from a humble heart that does not rank itself above others, that does not consider itself better than others but only a humble instrument to offer reciprocal help; only if we feel this true and deep humility, if we feel that these words come from common love, from the collegial affection in which we want to serve God together, can we help one another in this regard with a great act of love.

Here too the Greek text adds some nuances. The Greek word is "paracaleisthe"; it is the same root as the word "Paracletos, paraclesis", to comfort. It does not only mean to correct but also to comfort, to share the other's sufferings, to help him in his difficulties. And this also seems to me a great act of true collegial affection. (Pope Benedict XVI, Opening of the 11th Ordinary General Assembly of the Synod of Bishops, 3 October 2005)

God bless,


Tuesday, April 25, 2006

Cardinal: Condoms 'Lesser Evil' Than AIDS

Eeeeee Gads.... it appears this Cardinal may need a refresher on Catholic moral theology...

According to this article in the Washington Post...

Cardinal: Condoms 'Lesser Evil' Than AIDS
"We must do everything to fight AIDS," said Cardinal Carlo Maria Martini, the retired archbishop of Milan, in Italy's L'Espresso newsweekly. "Certainly, the use of condoms can constitute in certain situations a lesser evil."
Cardinal Martini has suggested that using a condom is justifiable under the ethical principle of the "lesser of evils." However, the Jesuits taught me many moons ago that in order for the ethical principle of lesser evils to apply certain conditions must be met. One such condition is that there can be no "greater good" as a moral choice. In other words, the moral agent is faced with ONLY the possibility of evil moral choices. Faced with that situation, we are ethically bound to choose the lesser of the evil choices. If there is a greater good, we must choose it, as St. Thomas Aquinas asserted, "the lesser evil or the greater good is always to be chosen" (Summa Theologica, suppl, 47, 2).

What about the situation where a person with HIV/AIDS desires to have sexual relations? If Cardinal Martini insists that sex with a condom is the lesser evil or greater good then he's become terribly confused. A person with HIV/AIDS is not faced with just the two choices: 1) have sex without a condemn and risk spreading HIV/AIDS to your partner, or 2) have sex with a condom, thereby mitigating the spread of HIV/AIDS. There's another choice which the Cardinal seems to have simply forgotten about, that is, don't have sex.

Is abstinence a greater evil than exposing yourself or your spouse to HIV/AIDS? Intercourse with a condom is intrinsically evil. Abstinence is not. Can abstinence be a greater evil than contraception? If so, what is the basis for this claim? Such a proposition is dubious at best. In doubtful matters, it is morally illicit to act contrary to the safer course of action. In otherwords, we know that intercourse with a condom is intrinsically evil. We have no evidence that suggests abstinence is a greater evil. Thus, one cannot arbitrarily decide that it is. Catholics especially owe their obedience and submission to the Teaching Church on the matter.

Moreover, condoms are claimed to be at best 90% effective against spreading sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, if you have sex 10 times, odds are you will give your partner your life-threatening disease even if you wear a condom. Is that the greater good? Is sex so important to you that you would accept a 10% chance of giving your partner a deadly disease? That's like playing Russian roulette with a 10-bullet pistol loaded with one bullet. Sure, its safer than having 10 bullets, but it only takes one bullet to kill you. The "greater good" is clearly to not play Russian roulette.

Likewise, it is absurd to expose your sexual partner to a deadly disease when you don't have to. Mitigating the risk by 100% is better than mitigating the risk by 90%. I betcha abstinence is 100% effective in preventing the spread of sexually transmitted disease.

Thus, one is NOT facing a situation where the "lesser of evils" principle applies, because there is another choice which is a "greater good." Abstinence is not intrinsically evil, is it? Jesus was celibate, wasn't he? Human acts which render sex non-procreative is intrinsically evil (cf. Gen 38:9, Casti Connubii, 56; Humanae Vitae; CCC 2370). Yet, the virtue of chastity is not evil (cf. 2 Cor. 7:11 ; Phil. 4:8; 1 Tim. 5:22; Jas. 3:17; 1 John 3:3; 1 Pet. 3:2; 2 Cor. 11:2; Titus 2:5; CCC 2349, 2337). Choosing an evil is not morally justified if one could choose a greater good.

What is the teaching of the magisterium on the matter?

According to this 24 Apr 2006 article by Catholic News Agency...

Vatican office clarifies: teaching on condoms and AIDS will not change
Msgr. Antonio Soto Guerrero, personal secretary of Cardinal Lozano Barragán, and member of the Pontifical Council for Health, told CNA that “the Doctrine of the Church remains firmly within the principles of Catholic moral. Facing AIDS, there is abstinence;
According to the Pontifical Council on the Family:
parents must also reject the promotion of so-called "safe sex" or "safer sex", a dangerous and immoral policy based on the deluded theory that the condom can provide adequate protection against AIDS. [Human Sexuality]
More from the Pontifical Council on the Family can be read here: Family Values vs. Safe Sex

See also ...

Teaching on Contraception
By Bishop Michael J. Sheridan
Diocese of Colorado Springs
21 October 2005

God bless,


Saturday, April 15, 2006

What is RCIA?

RCIA is the Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults. It is the process by which a non-Catholic adult becomes a member of the Catholic Church. Catholic Answers provides the following helpful article...

How to Become a Catholic

The Catholic Church explains this process in more detail in the introdution to the ecclesial text, Rite of Christian Initiation for Adults (1987)...
Rite of Christian Initiation of Adults, Introduction
Issued February 19, 1987

I. Structure of the Initiation of Adults

A. Evangelization and Precatechumenate
B. Catechumenate
C. Period of Purification and Enlightenment (Lenten Preparation)
D. Sacraments of Initiation
E. Period of Postbaptismal Catechesis or Mystagogy

II. Ministries and Offices
III. Time and Place of Initiation

A. Lawful or Customary Times
B. Outside the Customary Time

IV. Adaptations by Conferences of Bishops Using this Roman Ritual
V. Adaptations by the Bishop
VI. Adaptations by the Ministers

1. The rite of Christian initiation described below is designed for adults who,
after hearing the mystery of Christ proclaimed, consciously and freely seek the
living God and enter the way of faith and conversion as the Holy Spirit opens
their hearts. By God's help they will be strengthened spiritually during their
preparation and at the proper time will receive the sacraments fruitfully.

2. This rite includes not only the celebration of the sacraments of baptism,
confirmation, and the eucharist, but also all the rites of the catechumenate. A
catechumenate, endorsed by the ancient practice of the Church and adapted to
contemporary missionary work throughout the world, was so widely requested that
the Second Vatican Council decreed its restoration, revision, and adaptation to
local traditions. [1]

3. So that it will be accommodated more closely to the work of the Church and
to the circumstances of individuals, parishes, and missions, the rite of
initiation first gives the complete or usual form, intended for the preparation
of a large number of people (see nos. 68-239). By making simple changes, pastors
may adapt this form for the preparation of one person. Then, for special cases,
there is the simple form, which may be carried out in one celebration (see nos.
240-273) or in several celebrations (see nos. 274-277), as well as a short form
for those in danger of death (see nos. 278-294).


4. The initiation of catechumens is a gradual process that takes place within
the community of the faithful. Together with the catechumens, the faithful
reflect upon the value of the paschal mystery, renew their own conversion, and
by their example lead the catechumens to obey the Holy Spirit more generously.

5. The rite of initiation is suited to the spiritual journey of adults, which
varies according to the many forms of God's grace, the free cooperation of the
individuals, the action of the Church, and the circumstances of time and place.

6. On this journey, besides periods for making inquiry and for maturing (see
no. 7) there are stages or "steps": the progress of the catechumen is, as it
were, a passage through a gateway or the climbing of another "step."

a. First stage [catechumenate]: at the point of initial conversion, they wish
to become Christians and are accepted as catechumens by the Church.

b. Second stage [final preparation]: when their faith has grown and the
catechumenate is almost completed, they are admitted to a more intense
preparation for the sacraments.

c. Third stage [sacraments of initiation]: after the spiritual preparation is
completed, they receive the sacraments of Christian initiation.

These three stages, "steps," or "gateways" are to be considered as the major,
more intense moments of initiation and are marked by three liturgical rites: the
first by the rite of entrance into the order of catechumens, the second by the
election or enrollment of names, and the third by the celebration of Christian

7.The stages lead to the periods for making inquiry and maturing; alternatively,
the periods may also be considered to prepare for the stages.

a. The first period consists of inquiry on the part of the candidates and of
evangelization and the precatechumenate on the part of the Church. It ends with
entrance into the order of catechumens.

b. The second period, which begins with this entrance into the order of
catechumens and which may last for several years, includes catechesis and the
rites connected with catechesis. It comes to an end on the day of election.

c. The third period, shorter in length, ordinarily coincides with the Lenten
preparation for the Easter celebration and the sacraments. It is a time of
purification and enlightenment.

d. The final period goes through the whole Easter season and is devoted to
the postbaptismal catechesis or mystagogy. It is a time for deepening the
Christian experience, for gaining spiritual fruit, and for entering more closely
into the life and unity of the community of the faithful.

Thus there are four continuous periods: the precatechumenate, marked by the
hearing of the first preaching of the Gospel; the catechumenate, set aside for a
complete catechesis; the period of purification and enlightenment (Lenten
preparation) for a more intense spiritual preparation; and the period of
postbaptismal catechesis or mystagogy, marked by the new experience of
sacraments and community.

8. The whole initiation must bear a strong paschal character, since the
initiation of Christians is the first sacramental sharing in the death and
rising of Christ and since, in addition, the period of purification and
enlightenment ordinarily coincides with Lent [2] and the postbaptismal
catechesis or mystagogy with the Easter season. In this way Lent achieves its
full force as a more intense preparation of the elect and the Easter Vigil is
considered the proper time for the sacraments of initiation. [3] Because of
pastoral needs, however, the sacraments of initiation may be celebrated outside
these seasons.


9. Although the rite of initiation begins with admission to the catechumenate,
the preceding period or precatechumenate is of great importance and as a rule
should not be omitted. It is a time of evangelization: faithfully and constantly
the living God is proclaimed and Jesus Christ whom he has sent for the salvation
of all. Thus those who are not yet Christians, their hearts opened by the Holy
Spirit, may believe and be freely converted to the Lord and commit themselves
sincerely to him. For he is the way, the truth, and the life who fulfills all
their spiritual expectations, indeed infinitely surpasses them. [4]

10. From evangelization, completed with the help of God, come faith and initial
conversion; these cause a person to feel called away from sin and drawn into the
mystery of God's love. The whole period of the precatechumenate is set aside for
this evangelization, so that the genuine will to follow Christ and seek baptism
may mature.

11. During this period, catechists, deacons, and priests, as well as laypersons,
are to give a suitable explanation of the Gospel to the candidates. They are to
receive help and attention so that with a purified and clearer intention they
may cooperate with God's grace. Meetings of the candidates with families and
groups of Christians may then more easily be arranged.

12. In addition to the evangelization that is proper to this period, the
conferences of bishops may provide, if necessary and according to local
circumstances, a preliminary manner of receiving interested inquirers
("sympathizers"): those who, even though they do not fully believe, show some
inclination toward the Christian faith.

1. Such a reception, if it takes place, will be carried out without any ritual
celebration. it is the expression not yet of faith, but of a right intention.

2. The reception will be adapted to local conditions and opportunities. Some
candidates need to see evidence of the spirit of Christians that they are
striving to understand and experience. For others, however, whose catechumenate
has been delayed for one reason or another, some first outward act on their part
or on the community's is appropriate.

3. The reception will be held at a meeting or gathering of the local community,
on an occasion suitable for friendly conversation. An inquirer or "sympathizer"
is introduced by a friend and then welcomed and received by the priest or some
other worthy and suitable member of the community.

13. During the precatechumenate period, pastors should help inquirers with
prayers suited to them.


14. The rite described as the "entrance into the order of catechumens" is of the
utmost importance. Assembling publicly for the first time, the candidates make
their intention known to the Church and the Church, carrying out its apostolic
mission, admits those who intend to become members. God showers his grace on
them, as this celebration manifests their desire publicly and marks their
reception and first consecration by the Church.

15. For this step to be taken it is required that in the candidates the
beginnings of the spiritual life and the fundamentals of Christian teaching be
already established. [5] There must be evidence of the first faith that was
conceived during the period of the precatechumenate, of an initial conversion
and intention to change their lives and to enter into a relationship with God in
Christ. Consequently, there must also be evidence of the first stirrings of
repentance and a start to the practice of calling upon God in prayer, and some
first experience of the company and the spirit of Christians.

16. With the help of the sponsors (see no. 42), catechists, and deacons, it is
the responsibility of pastors to judge the external indications of these
dispositions. [6] It is also their duty, in view of the power of sacraments
already validly received (see General Introduction to Christian Initiation no.
4), to see that no baptized person seeks for any reason whatever to be baptized

17. After the celebration of the rite, the names are written at once in the
register of catechumens, along with the names of the minister and sponsors and
the date and place of admission.

18. From this time on, the catechumens, who have been welcomed by the Church
with a mother's love and concern and are joined to the Church, are now part of
the household of Christ; [7] they are nourished by the Church on the word of God
and sustained by liturgical celebrations. They should be eager, then, to take
part in the liturgy of the word and to receive blessings and sacramentals. When
two catechumens marry or when a catechumen marries an unbaptized person, an
appropriate rite is to be used. [8] One who dies during the catechumenate
receives a Christian burial.

19. The catechumenate is an extended period during which the candidates are
given pastoral formation and are trained by suitable discipline. [9] In this
way, the dispositions manifested at their entry into the catechumenate are
brought to maturity. This is achieved in four ways:

1. A suitable catechesis provided by priests, deacons, or catechists and other
laypersons, planned to be gradual and complete in its coverage, accommodated to
the liturgical year, and enriched by celebrations of the word, leads the
catechumens not only to an appropriate acquaintance with dogmas and precepts but
also to personal knowledge of the mystery of salvation in which they desire to

2. Familiar with living the Christian way of life and helped by the example and
support of sponsors and godparents and the whole community of the faithful, the
catechumens learn to pray to God more easily, to witness to the faith, to keep
alive in all their activities the expectation of Christ, to follow supernatural
inspiration in their deeds, and to exercise charity toward neighbor to the point
of selfrenunciation. Thus formed, "new converts set out on a spiritual journey.
Already sharing through faith in the mystery of Christ's death and resurrection,
they pass from the old to a new nature made perfect in Christ. This transition,
which brings with it a progressive change of outlook and conduct, should become
evident together with its social consequences and should be gradually effected
during the time of the catechumenate. Since the Lord in whom they believe is a
sign of contradiction, converts often experience divisions and separations, but
they also taste the joy that God gives without measure." [10]

3. By suitable liturgical rites, the Church like a mother helps the catechumens
on their journey, cleanses them little by little and strengthens them with God's
blessing. It is recommended that celebrations of the word be arranged for their
benefit and they may also attend the liturgy of the word with the faithful, thus
better preparing themselves for participation in the eucharist in time to come.
Ordinarily, however, when they are present in the assembly of the faithful, they
should be dismissed in a friendly manner before the liturgy of the eucharist
begins, unless there are difficulties in this. For they must await their
baptism, which will bring them into the priestly people and empower them to
participate in Christ's new worship.

4. Since the Church's life is apostolic, catechumens should also learn how to
work actively with others to spread the Gospel and build up the Church by the
testimony of their lives and the profession of their faith. [11]

20. The period of time appropriate for the catechumenate depends on the grace
of God and on various circumstances, such as the program of instruction for the
catechumenate, the number of catechists, deacons, and priests, the cooperation
of the individual catechumens, the means necessary to reach the place of the
catechumenate and to spend time there, and the help of the local community.
Nothing, therefore, can be settled a priori. The bishop has the responsibility
of setting the period of time and directing the discipline of the catechumenate.
It is recommended that the conferences of bishops, after considering the
conditions of their people and region, [12] regulate this matter in greater


21. The time of purification and enlightenment of the catechumens customarily
coincides with Lent. Both in its liturgy and in its liturgical catechesis, Lent
is a commemoration of baptism or a preparation for it and a time of penance;
[13] it renews the community of the faithful together with the catechumens and
makes them ready to celebrate the paschal mystery, which the sacraments of
initiation apply to each individual. [14]

22. The second stage of initiation begins the period of purification and
enlightenment, marked by a more intense preparation of heart and spirit. At this
stage the Church makes the "election," that is, the choice and admission of the
catechumens who because of their dispositions are worthy to take part in the
next celebration of the sacraments of initiation. This stage is called election
because the admission made by the Church is founded on the election by God, in
whose name the Church acts. It is also called the enrollment of names because
the candidates, as a pledge of fidelity, write their names in the book of those
who have been elected.

23. Before the election is celebrated, the candidates are expected to have a
conversion of mind and conduct, a sufficient acquaintance with Christian
teaching, and a sense of faith and charity. A decision on their suitableness is
also required. Later, in the actual celebration of the rite, the manifestation
of their intention and the decision of the bishop or his delegate should take
place in the presence of the community. It is thus clear that the election,
which enjoys such great solemnity, is the turning point in the whole

24. From the day of their election and admission, catechumens are called the
"elect." They also are called competentes ("competitors"), because they vie with
each other or compete to receive Christ's sacraments and the gifts of the Holy
Spirit. They are also called illuminandi ("those to be enlightened"), because
baptism itself has the name "illumination" and sheds the light of faith on the
newly baptized. In our times other terms may be used that, depending on regions
and cultures, are better suited to popular understanding and the idiom of the

25. During this period, a more intense spiritual preparation, which involves
interior recollection more than catechesis, is intended to purify hearts and
minds by the examination of conscience and by penance and also to enlighten
those hearts and minds with a deeper knowledge of Christ the Savior. This is
accomplished in various rites, especially in the scrutinies and presentations.

1. The "scrutinies," which are celebrated solemnly on Sundays, have the twofold
purpose mentioned above: to reveal anything that is weak, defective, or sinful
in the hearts of the elect, so that it may be healed, and to reveal what is
upright, strong, and holy, so that it may be strengthened. For the scrutinies
are intended to free from sin and the devil and to give strength in Christ, who
is the way, the truth, and the life of the elect.

2. The "presentations," by which the Church hands on to the elect its ancient
texts of faith and prayer, namely, the creed and the Lord's Prayer, are intended
to enlighten the elect. The creed, recalling the wonderful works of God for the
salvation of the human race, suffuses the vision of the elect with the light of
faith and joy. In the Lord's Prayer, they recognize more fully the new spirit of
adoption by which they will call God their Father, especially in the midst of
the eucharistic assembly.

26. In immediate preparation for the sacraments:

1. The elect should be instructed to rest from their ordinary work as far as
possible on Holy Saturday, spend the time in prayer and inner recollection, and
fast according to their ability. [15]

2. That same day, if there is a meeting of the elect, some of the immediately
preparatory rites may be celebrated, such as the recitation of the creed, the
ephphetha rite, the choosing of a Christian name, and, if it is to be done, the
anointing with the oil of catechumens.


27. The sacraments of baptism, confirmation, and eucharist are the final stage
in which the elect come forward and, with their sins forgiven, are admitted into
the people of God, receive the adoption of the children of God, are led by the
Holy Spirit into the promised fullness of time, and, in the eucharistic
sacrifice and meal, have a foretaste of the kingdom of God.


28. The celebration of baptism, which reaches its high point in the washing with
water and invocation of the Holy Trinity, is preceded by the blessing of the
water and the profession of faith, which are intimately linked to the rite of
washing with water itself.

29. The blessing of the water expresses the religious meaning of water as God's
creation and shows forth to all present the beginnings of God's saving mystery;
it recalls the unfolding of the paschal mystery and the use of water for its
sacramental accomplishment, while during it the Holy Trinity is invoked for the
first time.

30. In the rites of renunciation and profession of faith the same paschal
mystery, already commemorated in the blessing of the water and soon to be
professed briefly by the celebrant in the words of baptism, is proclaimed in the
active faith of those to be baptized. For adults are not saved unless, coming
forward of their own accord, they have the will to accept God's gift by their
belief. They are receiving the sacrament of faith, which is not only the faith
of the Church, but also the faith of each one of them; and it is expected that
it will be active in each one of them. As they are baptized, far from receiving
so great a sacrament merely passively, they enter into a covenant with Christ by
an act of their own will, renouncing error and holding fast to the true God.

31. After professing in living faith Christ's paschal mystery, they come forward
immediately to receive that mystery as expressed in the washing with water; upon
their professing faith in the Holy Trinity, the Trinity, invoked by the
celebrant, acts to number the elect among the adopted children of God and to
make them part of the people of God.

32. Therefore the washing with water should be given its full importance in the
celebration of baptism: it is the sign of the mystical sharing in Christ's death
and resurrection that brings about in those who believe in his name death to sin
and rising to eternal life. Accordingly, either immersion or infusion should be
chosen for the rite, whichever suits individual cases better, so that in
different traditions and circumstances there will be a clear understanding that
this washing is not just a purification rite but the sacrament of being joined
to Christ.

33. The anointing with chrism after baptism is a sign of the royal priesthood
of the baptized and their enrollment into the company of the people of God. The
white garment is a symbol of their new dignity and the lighted candle shows
their vocation to live as befits children of light.


34. According to the ancient practice preserved in the Roman liturgy, adults
are not to be baptized without receiving confirmation immediately afterward (see
no. 44), unless serious reasons prevent this. This combination signifies the
unity of the paschal mystery, the link between the mission of the Son and the
outpouring of the Holy Spirit, and the connection between the two sacraments
through which the Son and the Spirit come with the Father to those baptized.

35. Accordingly, confirmation is conferred after the explanatory rites of
baptism, the postbaptismal anointing being omitted (no. 224).


36. Lastly, the eucharist is celebrated. For the first time and with full right
the neophytes take part in it. This is the culminating point of their
initiation. For in this eucharist the neophytes, who have been raised to the
dignity of the royal priesthood, have an active part in both the general
intercessions and, as far as possible, in the presentation of the gifts. With
the whole community they take part in the celebration of the sacrifice and they
say the Lord's Prayer, thus giving expression to the spirit of adoption as God's
children that they have received in baptism. Then, by receiving the body that
was given and the blood that was shed, they confirm the gifts they have received
and have a foretaste of the eternal banquet.


37. After this last stage has been completed, the community along with the
neophytes grows in perceiving more deeply the paschal mystery and in making it
part of their lives by meditation on the Gospel, sharing in the eucharist, and
doing works of charity. This is the final period of initiation, the time of the
neophytes' mystagogy or postbaptismal catechesis.

38. The neophytes acquire a truly more complete and more fruitful grasp of the
"mysteries" by the newness of what they have heard and above all by the
experience of the sacraments they have received. For they have been renewed in
mind, tasted more deeply the good word of God, received the fellowship of the
Holy Spirit, and discovered the beauty of the Lord. Out of this experience,
which belongs to Christians and grows as it is lived, they derive a new sense of
the faith, the Church, and the world.

39. just as the freshness with which they come to the sacraments enlightens the
neophytes' understanding of the Scriptures, so also it increases their knowledge
of other people and thus has an impact on their experience of community. As a
result their interaction with the rest of the faithful is made easier and more
beneficial. The period of postbaptismal catechesis is of utmost importance so
that the neophytes, with the help of their godparents, may enter into closer
ties with the other faithful and bring to the others a renewed vision and fresh

40. Since the distinctive character and force of this period issue from the new,
personal experience of the sacraments and of the community, the chief setting
for the postbaptismal catechesis or mystagogy is the Masses called Masses for
neophytes, that is, the Sunday Masses of the Easter season. In these
celebrations, besides meeting with the community and sharing in the mysteries,
the newly baptized will find the readings of the Lectionary particularly
appropriate for them, especially the readings of Year A. For this reason, the
whole local community should be invited to these Masses, along with the
neophytes and their godparents. The texts of these Masses may be used even when
Christian initiation is celebrated outside the usual time.
II: Ministries and Offices
41. The people of God, represented by the local Church, besides attending to
what is stated in the General Introduction to Christian Initiation no. 7, should
always understand and show that the initiation of adults is its concern and the
business of all the baptized. [16] Therefore the community must always be fully
prepared in the pursuit of its apostolic vocation to give help to those who are
searching for Christ. In the various circumstances of daily life, even as in the
apostolate, all the followers of Christ have the obligation of spreading the
faith according to their abilities. [17] Hence, the entire community must help
the candidates and catechumens throughout the whole period of their initiation,
during the precatechumenate, the catechumenate, and the period of postbaptismal
catechesis or mystagogy. In particular:

1. During the period of evangelization and precatechumenate, the faithful should
remember that for the Church and its members the supreme purpose of their
apostolate is to bring Christ's message to the world by word and deed and to
communicate his grace. [18] They should therefore show themselves ready to open
up the spirit of the Christian community to the candidates and to welcome them
into their homes, personal conversation, and some community gatherings.

2. The faithful should seek to be present at the celebrations of the
catechumenate whenever possible and should take an active part in the responses,
prayers, singing, and acclamations.

3. On the day of election, because it is a day of growth for the community, the
faithful should be sure to give honest and carefully considered testimony about
the catechumens.

4. During Lent, the period of purification and enlightenment, the faithful
should be present at and attentive to the rites of the scrutinies and
presentations and give the catechumens the example of their own renewal in the
spirit of penance, faith, and charity. At the Easter Vigil, they should attach
great importance to renewing their own baptismal promises.

5. The faithful should take part in the Masses for neophytes during the period
immediately after baptism, welcome the neophytes with open arms in charity, and
help them to feel more at home in the community of the baptized.

42. Any candidate seeking admission as a catechumen is accompanied by a sponsor,
that is, a man or woman who has known and assisted the candidate and stands as a
witness to the candidate's moral character, faith, and intention. It may happen
that this sponsor is not the one who will serve as godparent for the periods of
purification, enlightenment, and mystagogy; in that case, another person takes
the sponsor's place in the role of godparent.

43. But on the day of election, at the celebration of the sacraments, and during
the period of mystagogy the candidate is accompanied by a godparent. [19] This
is a person chosen by the candidate on the basis of example, good qualities, and
friendship, delegated by the local Christian community, and approved by the
priest. It is the responsibility of the godparent to show the candidate how to
practice the Gospel in personal and social life and to be for the candidate a
bearer of Christian witness and a guardian over growth in the baptismal life.
Chosen before the candidate's election, the godparent fulfills this office
publicly from the day of the election, testifying to the community about the
candidate. The godparents continue to be important during the time after
reception of the sacraments when the neophyte needs to be assisted to remain
true to the baptismal promises.

44. The bishop, [20] in person or through his delegate, sets up, regulates, and
promotes the pastoral formation of catechumens and admits the candidates to
their election and to the sacraments. It is to be hoped that, presiding if
possible at the Lenten liturgy, he will himself celebrate the rite of election
and, at the Easter Vigil, the sacraments of initiation. Finally, as part of his
pastoral care, the bishop should depute catechists, truly worthy and properly
prepared, to celebrate the minor exorcisms. [21]

45. Priests, besides their usual ministry exercised in any celebration of
baptism, confirmation, and the eucharist,22 have the responsibility of attending
to the pastoral and personal care of the catechumenS,13 especially those who
seem hesitant and weak. With the help of deacons and catechists, they are to
provide instruction for the catechumens; they are also to approve the choice of
godparents and gladly listen to and help them. Finally, priests should be
diligent in the correct celebration and adaptation of the rites throughout the
entire course of Christian initiation (see no. 67).

46. The priest who baptizes an adult or a child of catechetical age should, when
the bishop is absent, also confer confirmation, unless this sacrament is to be
given at another time (see no. 56). [24]

When there is a large number to be confirmed, the minister of confirmation
may associate priests with himself to administer the sacrament.

These priests:

a. must have a particular function or office in the diocese, that is, they
must be vicars general, episcopal vicars or delegates, district or regional
vicars, or those who by mandate of the Ordinary hold equivalent offices;

b. or must be the parish priests (pastors) of the places where confirmation
is celebrated, pastors of the places where the candidates belong, or priests
who did special work in the catechetical preparation of those to be confirmed.

47. Deacons, if they are available, should be ready to help. If the conference
of bishops has decided in favor of having permanent deacons, it should see to it
that there are enough of them to ensure that the stages, periods, and exercises
of the catechumenate take place in all the places where pastoral needs require.

48. Catechists have an important office for the progress of the catechumens and
for the growth of the community. As often as possible, they should have an
active part in the rites. When they are teaching, they should see that their
instruction is filled with the spirit of the Gospel, adapted to the liturgical
signs and the cycle of the Church's year, suited to the needs of the
catechumens, and as far as possible enriched by local traditions. When deputed
by the bishop, they may perform the minor exorcisms (see no. 44) and the
blessings [27] contained in the ritual nos. 113-124.
III. Time and Place of Initiation
49. As a general rule, pastors should make use of the rite of initiation in
such a way that the sacraments themselves are celebrated at the Easter Vigil and
the election takes place on the First Sunday of Lent. The rest of the rites are
spaced on the basis of the arrangement already described (nos. 6-8, 14-40). For
pastoral needs of a more serious nature, however, it is lawful to arrange the
schedule for the entire rite differently, as will be detailed later (nos. 58-62).


50. The following should be noted about the time of celebrating the rite of
entrance into the order of catechumens:

1. It should not be too early, but should be delayed until the candidates,
according to their own dispositions and situation, have had sufficient time to
conceive an initial faith and to show the first signs of conversion (see no.

2. In places where the number of candidates is smaller than usual, there
should be a delay until a large enough group is formed for catechesis and the
liturgical rites.

3. Two dates in the year, or three if necessary, are to be fixed as normally
the best times for carrying out this rite.

51. The rite of election or enrollment of names should as a rule be celebrated
on the First Sunday of Lent. For convenience it may be anticipated somewhat or
even celebrated during the week.

52. The scrutinies should take place on the Third, Fourth, and Fifth Sundays
of Lent, or, if necessary, on the other Sundays of Lent or even on more
convenient weekdays. Three scrutinies should be celebrated. The bishop may
dispense from one of them for serious reasons or even from two in extraordinary
circumstances. When, for lack of time, the election is held early, the first
scrutiny is also to be held early; in this case, however, care is to be taken
not to prolong the period of purification and enlightenment beyond eight weeks.

53. By ancient usage, the presentations, since they take place after the
scrutinies, are part of the same period of purification and enlightenment. They
are celebrated during the week. The presentation of the creed to the catechumens
takes place during the week after the first scrutiny; the presentation of the
Lord's Prayer during the week after the third scrutiny. For pastoral reasons,
however, to enrich the liturgy in the period of the catechumenate, the
presentations may be transferred and celebrated during the catechumenate as a
kind of "rite of passage" (see nos. 125-126).

54. On Holy Saturday, when the elect refrain from work (see no. 26) and spend
their time in recollection, the various, immediately preparatory rites may be
celebrated: the catechumen's recitation of the creed, the ephphetha rite, the
choosing of a Christian name, and even the anointing with the oil of catechumens
(see nos. 193-207).

55. The sacraments for the initiation of adults are to be celebrated at the
Easter Vigil itself (see nos. 8, 49). If there is a large number of catechumens,
the sacraments are given to the majority that night and may be given to the rest
on days within the Easter octave, whether at the principal church or at a
mission station. In this case either the Mass of the day or the ritual Mass for
Christian Initiation may be used with the readings from the Easter Vigil.

56. In certain cases, confirmation may be postponed until near the end of the
period of postbaptismal catechesis, for example, Pentecost Sunday (see no. 237).

57. On all the Sundays of Easter after the first, the "Masses for neophytes" are
to be celebrated. The entire community and the newly baptized with their
godparents should be urged to attend (see no. 40).


58. The rite of initiation is normally arranged so that the sacraments will be
celebrated during the Easter Vigil. Because of unusual circumstances and
pastoral needs, however, the rite of election and the rites during the period of
purification and enlightenment may be held outside Lent and the sacraments may
be celebrated outside the Easter Vigil or Easter Sunday. Even in ordinary
circumstances, but only for serious pastoral needs (for example, if there is a
very large number of persons to be baptized), it is lawful to choose another
time, especially the Easter season, to celebrate the sacraments of initiation.
The program of initiation during Lent, however, must be maintained. When this is
done, even though the time of its insertion into the liturgical year is changed,
the structure of the entire rite, with its properly spaced intervals, remains
the same. But the following adjustments are to be made.

59. As far as possible, the sacraments of initiation are to be celebrated on
Sunday, using, as occasion suggests, the Sunday Mass or the proper ritual Mass
(see no. 55).

60. The rite of entrance into the order of catechumens is to take place when
the time is right, as explained in no. 50.

61. The election is to be celebrated about six weeks before the sacraments of
initiation so that there is sufficient time for the scrutinies and the
presentations. Care should be taken that the celebration of the election does not
fall on a solemnity of the liturgical year. The readings assigned in the ritual
itself are to be used and the Mass texts will be those of the day or of the
ritual Mass for Election or Enrollment of Names.

62. The scrutinies should not be celebrated on solemnities, but on Sundays or
even on weekdays, with the usual intervals and use of the readings given in the
ritual itself. The Mass texts will be those of the day or of the ritual Mass
(see no. 374).

63. The rites should be celebrated in the places appropriate to them as
indicated in the ritual. Consideration should be given to special needs that
arise in secondary stations of mission territories.
IV. Adaptations by Conferences of Bishops Using this Roman Ritual
64. In addition to the adaptations envisioned in the General Introduction to
Christian Initiation nos. 30-33, the rite of initiation of adults allows for the
conferences of bishops to decide on other adaptations.

65. The conferences have discretionary power to make the following decisions:

1. to establish, where it seems advisable, some method of receiving
well-disposed inquirers ("sympathizers") prior to the catechumenate (see no.

2. to insert, where paganism is widespread, the first exorcism and the first
renunciation into the rite of entrance into the order of catechumens (nos.

3. to decree that the tracing of the sign of the cross upon the forehead be
replaced by making that sign before the forehead, in areas where the act of
touching may not seem proper (no. 83);

4. to decree that in the rite of entrance into the order of catechumens (no.
88) candidates receive a new name wherever it is the practice of non-Christian
religions to give a new name to initiates immediately;

5. to allow within the same rite (no. 89), according to local customs,
subsidiary rites that symbolize reception into the community;

6. to establish during the period of the catechumenate, in addition to the
usual rites (nos. 106-124), "rites of passage": for example, anticipating the
presentations (nos. 125-126), the ephphetha rite, the catechumens' recitation
of the creed, or even the anointing with the oil of catechumens (nos. 127-129);

7. to decree the omission of the anointing with the oil of catechumens (no.
218) or its transferral to the immediately preparatory rites (nos. 206-207) or
its use during the period of the catechumenate as a kind of "rite of passage"
(nos. 127-132);

8. to make the formularies of renunciation more specific and detailed (see
nos. 80,217).
V. Adaptations By the Bishop
66. It pertains to the bishop for his own diocese:

1. to set up the formation program of the catechumenate and to lay down norms
according to local needs (see no. 44);

2. to decree whether and when, as circumstances warrant, the whole rite of
initiation may be celebrated outside the customary times (see no. 58);

3. to dispense, on the basis of some serious obstacle, from one scrutiny or,
in extraordinary circumstances, even from two (see no. 240);

4. to permit the simple rite to be used in whole or in part (see no. 240);

5. to depute catechists who are truly worthy and properly prepared to give
the exorcisms and blessings (see nos. 44, 48);

6. to preside at the rite of election and to ratify, personally or through a
delegate, the admission of the elect (see no. 44).
VI. Adaptations By the Minister
67. It is for the celebrant to use fully and intelligently the freedom which
is given to him either in the General Introduction to Christian Initiation no.
34 or in the rubrics of the rite itself. In many places the manner of acting or
praying is intentionally left undetermined or two alternatives are offered, so
that the celebrant, according to his prudent pastoral judgment, may accommodate
the rite to the circumstances of the candidates and others who are present. The
greatest freedom is left in the introductions and intercessions, which may
always be shortened, changed, or even expanded with new intentions in order to
fit the circumstances or special situation of the candidates (for example, a sad
or joyful event occurring in a family) or of the others present (for example,
joy or sorrow common to the parish or civic community).

The celebrant will also adapt the texts by changing the gender and number as
1. See SC art. 64-66; AG no. 14; CD no. 14..
2. See SC art. 109.
3. This amends CIC can. 790.
4. See AG no. 13.
5. See AG no. 14.
6. See. AG no. 13.
7. See LG no. 14; AG no. 14.
8. See Rite of Marriage nos. 55-56.
9. See AG no. 14.
10. See AG no. 13.
11. See. AG no.14.
12. See SC art. 64.
13. See SC art. 109.
14. See AG no. 14.
15. See SC art. 110.
16. See AG no. 14.
17. See LG no. 17.
18. See AA no. 6.
19. See General Introduction to Christian Initiation no. 8.
20. See ibid. no. 12.
21. In this case CIC can. 1153 is abrogated.
22. See General Introduction to Christian Initiation nos. 13-15.
23. See PO no. 6.
24. See Rite of Confirmation, Introduction no. 7, b.
25. See ibid. no. 8.
26. See LG no. 26; AG no. 16.
27. See SC art. 79.